India is a democratic country, where citizens live with complete independence, however, they have many obligations towards their country. Rights and responsibilities are the two aspects of the same coin, and both move along side. If we have a right, then we also have some obligation to engage with those rights. Wherever we are living, whether it is home, society, village, state or country, where rights and liabilities go with us step by step. Nowadays, students are given their faculty to write a paragraph or complete essay on any topic, work on it. It is used by teachers as a strategy to increase the writing capacity and knowledge on their subjects as well as to spread awareness. Following are the major essays or paragraphs on small essays, rights and obligations on the rights and obligations of citizens. Of these, you can choose the essay on the rights and obligations of any citizen according to your need and need: Here you can find some essays on Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens in English language for students in 100, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 550 words.
Essay 1 (100 words) on the rights and duties of the citizens (obligations)
Citizens are the same person who lives as a resident in a village or city of a country. We are all citizens of our country and hold many responsibilities for our village, city, society, state and country. The rights and duties of each citizen are very priceless and connected to each other. Every state or country has some basic civil rights for the residents of their country; Such as personal rights, religious rights, social rights, moral rights, economic rights and political rights etc. Being a citizen of a country, we must fulfill our rights as well as moral and legal obligations. We should love one another and respect each other and must stay together without any discrimination. To protect our country, we must be prepared for anticipated sacrifices from time to time.
Essay 2 (200 words) on the rights and duties of the citizens (obligations)
Citizens living in the country should know their rights and duties. Understanding all the rules and regulations created by the Constitution, will help the nation's citizens fulfill their responsibilities towards the country. We must know about our rights and freedom in the country and our rights to serve the community and the country. The constitution of India (which is called the largest law of India) came into effect on 26th January 1950, it has provided democratic rights to the citizens of the country. According to the Indian constitution, people of India hold many rights and obligations.
There are 6 fundamental rights in the Indian Constitution, without which no one lives in a democratic way. That is, democracy works in any country, whereas citizens of that country get rights. Such rights save the dictatorship of the government and being cruel. Fundamental rights help people in the development of people's ethical, physical and personality. In the event of abduction of rights, any person can take refuge in court for protection. There is also a fundamental duty for the country's prosperity and peace.
Essay on the rights and duties of citizens 3 (250 words)
Fundamental rights to Indian citizens have been given for the necessary and basic conditions of good life. Without such rights, no Indian citizen can develop his personality and confidence. These fundamental rights are contained in the Indian Constitution. Fundamental rights of citizens are protected by supreme law, while general rights are protected by general law. The fundamental rights of citizens can not be abrogated, though, in some special circumstances, they can temporarily be suspended for some time.
According to the Indian Constitution, 6 Fundamental Rights; Right to Equality (Article 14 through Article 18), Right to Religious Freedom (from Article 25 to Article 28), Right Against Exploitation (Article 23 and 24), Right to Culture and Education (Article 29 and 30), of Independence Rights (Article 22 from Article 19), Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article 32). Citizens can take advantage of their rights, living in any part of the country. If any person's rights are forced to be spared by the person, then that person can take refuge in court to protect his rights. Good citizens have many duties to improve their surroundings and to attain spiritual peace, which must be followed by all. Completing his duties towards the country provides a sense of ownership of the country. Being a good citizen of the country, we should not waste electricity, water, natural resources, public property. We should pay tax on time as well as following all rules and regulations.
Essay 4 (300 words) on the rights and duties of the citizens (obligations)
Fundamental right given to citizens is an essential part of the constitution. Such fundamental rights can be changed by using the special process of Parliament. Except for the right to freedom, life, and personal property, no other person other than Indian citizens has these rights. Except for the right to life and the right to personal liberty, all other fundamental rights are postponed during the Emergency. If a citizen feels that his rights are being violated then that person can go to the court (Supreme Court and High Court) to protect his rights. Some fundamental rights are of positive nature and some of the negative nature and are always supreme in general law. Some fundamental rights; As - freedom of expression of ideas, organizing a function, cultural and education rights are limited to citizens only.
In 1950, when the Constitution came into effect, at this time there was no fundamental duty in the Constitution of India. After this, during the 42th constitutional amendment in 1976, ten basic duties were added to the Indian Constitution (under Article 51A). The basic duty of Indian citizens is as follows:
- Indian citizens should respect national flag and national anthem.
- We should respect the values of ideas observed during the freedom struggle.
- We must protect the country's power, unity and integrity.
- We must maintain our brotherhood while protecting the country.
- We must preserve and protect our cultural heritage sites.
- We must protect, preserve and improve the natural environment.
- We must protect public property.
- We should develop a scientific inquiry and a sense of inquiry.
- We must achieve excellence in every and every field of personal and collective activity.
Essay on the rights and duties of citizens 5 (350 words)
Fundamental duty of Indian citizens, in 1976, was added to the Indian constitution by 42th constitutional amendment. All the responsibilities for the country's interest are very important and necessary. In order to comply with civil duties or moral duties, citizens of the country can not be legally bound even by the court. If a person is not following the fundamental duties, then it can not be punished because there is no legislation to follow these duties. Fundamental Rights (Right to Equality, Right to Freedom, Right Against Exploitation, Right to Freedom, Right to Culture and Education and Right to Constitutional Remedies) is an integral part of the Indian Constitution. Inclusion of such duties in the Constitution is important for the progress, peace and prosperity of the country.
Some fundamental duties included in the Indian constitution; The national flag, respecting the national anthem, the citizens should protect their country, whenever there is a need, should remain committed to national service, should protect the public property etc. Such fundamental duty is very important for the national interest of the country, however, people can not be compelled to admit them. To fully enjoy the rights, people must follow their duties towards their country in a proper manner, because the rights and duties are connected to each other. As soon as we have the right, our responsibilities towards personal and social welfare also increase. Both are not separate from each other and are important for the prosperity of the country.
As a good citizen of the country, we need to know and learn our rights and duties for the welfare of the society and the country. We need to understand that, all of us are responsible for the good and bad state of society. To bring some positive effects in the society and the country, we need to change our thinking in the form of work. If life can be changed by personal actions, then why collective efforts made in society can not bring positive effect in the country and the entire society. Therefore, the duty of the citizens for the prosperity and peace of the society and the whole country matters much more.
Essay on the rights and duties of the citizens (liabilities) 6 (550 words)
We are a social creature, we have many responsibilities to bring development, prosperity and peace to the society and the country. In order to fulfill its responsibilities, we have been given some rights through the Constitution of India. It is very important to give rights to citizens to improve individual development and social life. The country's democracy system is completely based on the independence of the citizens of the country. The rights given by the Constitution are called fundamental rights, which can not be withdrawn from us in normal times. Our Constitution gives us 6 fundamental rights:
- Right to freedom; This is a very important fundamental right, which enables people to express their thoughts through speeches, by writing or by other means. According to this right, the person is free to comment against criticism, criticism or government policies. He is free to do any business in any corner of the country.
- Right to freedom of religion; There are many states in the country where people of different religions live together. All of us are free to follow, practice, publicize and emulate any religion of our choice. Nobody has the right to interfere in anyone's religious beliefs.
- Right to Equality; Citizens living in India are equal and there is no discrimination and difference between rich, poor, high-low. A person of any religion, caste, tribe, place can achieve higher rank in any office, he only holds the necessary qualifications and qualifications.
- Right to Education and Culture; Every child has the right to receive education and the child can receive education at any stage in any institution.
- right against exploitation; Nobody can force anyone against his / her wishes or children under the age of 14, without any wages or wages.
- The right to constitutional remedies; This is the most important right. This right is called the soul of the Constitution, because it protects all the rights of the Constitution. If anyone feels in any situation that his rights have suffered, then he can go to court for justice.
As we all know, rights and duties go hand in hand. Our rights are meaningless without duties, thus both are inspirational. If we do not follow our duties to run the country smoothly on the path of progress, then we have no right to achieve the benefits of our fundamental rights. Being a citizen of the country, our duty and responsibilities are as follows:
- We must respect our national flag and national anthem.
- We must obey and obey the laws of the country.
- We should enjoy our rights without interfering in the freedom of others.
- We must always be ready to protect our country when necessary.
- We must respect and protect national heritage and public property (railways, post offices, bridges, roads, schools, world schools, historic buildings, places, forests, forests etc.)
- We should pay our taxes properly on time.
Environment a Human Right
... Environmental Protection - Recognizing the human right Pursuit to save the environmental life. Rashmi Shukla (Author) and Titiksha Shrivastava (Co-Author) 09/25/2012 Rashmi Shukla1 Titiksha Shrivastava2 Environmental Protection: Recognizing the Human Right Human rights, these are the basic fundamental rights guaranteed to every human under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and rights guaranteed to every citizen of India under the constitution of India. Article 21 of the India constitution has often been referred to as the spirit of Indian constitution, the article states that “Nobody shall be deprived of his Right to life and personal liberty except by the procedure established by law”. Prima facie the Article seems to be very concise but through various precedents and judicial dictions the Indian judiciary has recognized various facets pertaining to the article. The article briefly explains the duty of State to provide safe and healthy environment to its citizens as the part of Directive Principle of State Policy provided under Article 36-51 of the Indian Constitution. This paper seeks to marginalize the relation between human rights and Environmental protection by seeking the relation between environment and its effect on human life. The paper also adjudicates...
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Right to Food
...MADHYA PRADESH HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION SUMMER INTERNSHIP -2012 TOPIC: HUMAN RIGHTS- RIGHT TO FOOD ACKNOWLEDGMENT I owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported me during the preparation of this project. My deepest thanks to the Deputy Secretary Mr. Kuldeep Jain, the guide of the project for guiding and correcting various documents of my research with due attention and care. He has taken to go through the project and make necessary changes as and when needed. I also thank other staff and members of MPHRC for extending their support whenever I was in need of it. My deep sense of gratitude to my institute, National Law Unversity, Odisha for providing me with the opportunity to work at such a brilliant institution in the field of Human Rights. Thanks and appreciation to my co-internees at MPHRC for their support. Introduction The right to food is a human right. It protects the right of all human beings to live in dignity, free from hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition. The right to food is not about charity, but about ensuring that all people have the capacity to feed themselves in dignity. The right to food is protected under international human rights and humanitarian law and the correlative state obligations are equally well-established under international law. The right to food is recognized in the Universal Declaration on Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), as well as a...
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...------------------------------------------------- Human rights in India Human rights in India is an issue complicated by the country's large size, its tremendous diversity, its status as a developing country and asovereign, secular, democratic republic. The Constitution of India provides for Fundamental rights, which include freedom of religion. Clauses also provide for Freedom of Speech, as well as separation of executive and judiciary and freedom of movement within the country and abroad. According to the United States Library of Congress, although human rights problems do exist in India, the country is generally not regarded as a human rights concern, unlike other countries in South Asia such as neighboring Pakistan. Based on these considerations, the 2010 report ofFreedom in the World by Freedom House gave India a political rights rating of 2, and a civil liberties rating of 3, earning it the highest possible rating of free In its report on human rights in India during 2010, Human Rights Watch stated India had "significant human rights problems". They identified lack of accountability for security forces and impunity for abusive policing including "police brutality, extrajudicial killings, and torture" as major problems. An independent United Nations expert in 2011 expressed concern that she found human rights workers and their families who "have been killed, tortured, ill-treated, disappeared, threatened, arbitrarily arrested and detained, falsely charged......
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...Inalienability: Human rights are universal and inalienable. All people everywhere in the world are entitled to them. The universality of human rights is encompassed in the words of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.” Everyone is born with and possesses the same rights, regardless of where they live, their gender or race, or their religious, cultural or ethnic background. Inalienable: because people’s rights can never be taken away except in specific situations and according to due process. For example, the right to liberty may be restricted if a person is found guilty of a crime by a court of law. Indivisibility: Human rights are indivisible. Whether they relate to civil, cultural, economic, political or social issues, human rights are inherent to the dignity of every human person. Consequently, all human rights have equal status, and cannot be positioned in a hierarchical order. Denial of one right invariably impedes enjoyment of other rights. Thus, the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living cannot be compromised at the expense of other rights, such as the right to health or the right to education. First-generation human rights, often called "blue" rights, deal essentially with liberty and participation in political life. They are fundamentally civil and political in nature: They serve negatively to protect the individual from excesses of the state. First-generation......
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...10/21/13 Citizen Citizen’s Charters- A Handbook A Publication of the Government of India Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances New Delhi, India Contents Sl.No. 1 The Citizen’s Charters : Indian Experience Basic Concept, Origin and Principles The International Scene The Indian Scene Comprehensive Website on Citizen’s Charter Exemplary Implementation of the Citizen’s Charter Evaluation of Citizen’s Charter Compendium on Citizen’s Charters in Government of India Regional Seminars Capacity-Building workshops Department-Specific Workshops Information and Facilitation Counters(IFCs) Problems faced in Implementing the Charters goicharters.nic.in/cchandbook.htm 1/45 Page No. 1 10/21/13 Citizen Lessons Learnt Future Vision: Development of Charter Mark II Formulation of Citizen’s Charter Rationale of a Citizen’s Charter Components of a Citizen’s Charter Formulation of Citizen’s Charters: A Road Map Citizen’s Charters-Model Guidelines Citizen’s Charters-General Structure Guidelines Dos and Don’t for Implementing the Charters What Makes a Good Charters Things to Remember A Model Format for Citizen’s Charter 9 III Duties and Responsibilities of Nodal Officers Duties and Responsibilities of Nodal Officers of Citizen’s charter in Central/State Governments/Ministries/ Departments/Public Sector Undertakings/Organisations for Formulation and Implementation of Citizen’s......
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...A brief note on Fundamental Rights given to a citizen in Constitution of India. The Fundamental Rights embodied in the Indian constitution act as a guarantee that all Indian citizens can and will lead their lives in peace as long as they live in Indian democracy. These civil liberties take precedence over any other law of the land. They include individual rights common to most liberal democracies, such as equality before the law, freedom of speech and expression, freedom of association and peaceful assembly, freedom of religion, and the right to constitutional remedies for the protection of civil rights such as habeas corpus. In addition, the Fundamental Rights for Indians are aimed at overturning the inequities of past social practices. They have also been used to in successfully abolishing the "untouchability"; prohibit discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth; and forbid trafficking in human beings and also the forced labor. They go beyond conventional civil liberties in protecting cultural and educational rights of minorities by ensuring that minorities may preserve their distinctive languages and establish and administer their own education institutions. FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS Originally, the right to property was also included in the Fundamental Rights; however, the Forty-fourth Amendment, passed in 1978, revised the status of property rights by stating that "No person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law."...
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Human Rights Violation by Police in India
...understanding of Human Rights is that the rights which are inherent to all human beings, whatever be the nationality, Place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion or any other status and discrimination should not be there among the people. “The concept of human rights, though the British claim that they knew from the time of their Magna Carta(1215),were to incorporated in the Indian Police Act,1861 and as such the accountability of the police for human rights violation as not at all a concern for the English at a time when they drafted the Indian Police Act in 1861.When India became independent, most of the Indian states drafted their State Police Acts and even there, the experts who drafted the Acts was concerned with the drafting of the Acts in tune with the Colonial Indian Police Act rather than doing the same keeping in mind the principles of the Human Rights as guaranteed by Indian Constitution and Police Accountability”. “Under the Police Act 1861,which is still in force, Police in India is nothing more than a government department lacking the autonomy under rule of law that exists for the police in other leading democracies. No doubt the Constitution of India is the supreme law of the land but the police are governed by the repressive 1861 Police Act and the regressive Indian Penal Code (IPC) and Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC)”. Police are the important mass of the justice system so it is their responsibility to protect the rights of the......
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...The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India . It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions, and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world, containing 448 [Note 1] articles in 25 [Note 2] parts, 12[Note 3] schedules, 5 appendices and 98[Note 4] amendments (out of 120  Constitution Amendment Bills). Besides the English version, there is an official Hindi translation. Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar is widely regarded as the father of the Indian Constitution. The Constitution follows parliamentary system of government and the executive is directly accountable to the legislature . Article 74 provides that there shall be a Prime Minister of India as the head of government. It also states that there shall be a President of India and a Vice-President of India under Articles 52 and 63. Unlike the Prime Minister, the President largely performs ceremonial roles. The Constitution of India is federal in nature. Each state and each Union territory of India has its own government. Analogues to President and Prime Minister, each has a Governor (in case of states) or Lieutenant Governor (in the case of Union territories) and a Chief Minister . The 73rd and 74th Amendment Act also introduced the system of......
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Fundamental Rights and Duties of Indian Citizens
...What are the fundamental rights of every citizen of India ? SAPTARSHI DUTTA Our Constitution gives us some other rights which are known as Fundamental Rights. These rights cannot be taken back in normal times. The Constitution gives us six fundamental rights. The following are the fundamental rights given by our Constitution. 1. Right to Freedom: Right to freedom is an important fundamental right. Every one is free to express his thoughts and ideas through speeches, writing or through newspapers. He is free to criticize and speak against the policies of the Government, if he does not agree with them. He is free to move about and carry on any trade or business in any part of India. 2. Right to Freedom of Religion: The State has no religion. It does not favor any religion. All religions are equal before the law. Every citizen is free to practice, propagate and worship any religion he likes. The State does not interfere with anybody's faith. 3. Right to Equality: All citizens are equal before the law. There is no discrimination between the rich and the poor, high or the low. There is no discrimination of caste, creed, religion, sex or place of birth. Every citizen can get the highest office for which he has the ability and the required qualifications 4. Right to Education and Culture: Every child is tree to receive education in any educational institution without distinction of caste, creed, religion and sex. He is free to receive education up to any......
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Rights of Elderly
...HUMAN RIGHTS LAW PROJECT ON RIGHTS OF ELDERLY Riswana Mahamood 703 7th Semester NUALS ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would like to thank my Teacher Smt Liji Samuel, for providing me with an opportunity to do research and submit a project, the college authorities for the Library without which I wouldn’t have been able to get an exact idea as to how to go about the completion of this project. I’d thank the support of my classmates in this regard too. My Parents, who have supported me throughout. God Almighty, For being there. 01/10/2014 Riswana Mahamood 703 Cochin,Kerala Introduction Ageing is a natural process, which inevitably occurs in human life cycle. It brings with a host of challenges in the life of the elderly, which are mostly engineered by the changes in their body, mind, thought process and the living patterns. Ageing refers to a decline in the functional capacity of the organs of the human body, which occurs mostly due to physiological transformation, it......
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Right to Die
...Right to die and article 21 of constitution of india. CONSTITUTIONAL LAW-I PROJECT table of contents SerialNo. | TOPIC | PageNo. | 18.104.22.168.5.6.7. | AcknowledgementIntroductionLiterature ReviewSynopsis * Statement of problem * Methodology * Objectives * Hypothesis * Research questions Chapterisation * Chapter 1:Defination of euthanasia and its types. * chapter 2:Voluntary death from religious perspective. * Chapter 3:Position of euthanasia in other countries. * Chapter 4:Arguments in favour of legalizing euthanasia. * Chapter 5:Arguments against legalizing euthanasia.Conclusionbibliography | 6781011-1611121314151718 | INTRODUCTION Part III of Indian Constitution contains a long list of fundamental rights. And one of the major fundamental rights among them is Article 21. This article 21 of our constitution deals with "Protection of Life and Personal Liberty". The Article 21 read as follows: "No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty expect according to procedure established by law." According to this article right to life means the right to lead meaningful, complete and dignified life. The object of the fundamental right under Article 21 is to prevent any restriction by the State to a person upon his personal liberty and deprivation of life except according to procedure established by law. But can The right to life be interpreted to such an extent which leads to its self destruction(right to die) ? This is the......
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Introduction to Human Rights and Duties
...HUMAN RIGHTS AND DUTIES UNIVERSITY OF PUNE INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RIGHTS AND DUTIES Dr.T. S.N.Sastry Professor & Head Department of Law University of Pune Foreword His Excellency Shri. K. Sankaranarayanan Hon'ble Governor of Maharashtra Preface Dr. R. K. Shevgoankar Vice Chancellor University of Pune Published by : Dr. Manik Jadhav Registrar, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune - 411 007. Printed at : University of Pune Press Ganeshkhind, Pune - 411 007. © University of Pune First Edition 2011 No part of this book or the slides shall be reproduced in any manner without the prior permission of the University of Pune. University of Pune Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet website referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. August 2011. Contents: Forward Preface Acknowledgments INTRODUCTION UNIT I BASIC CONCEPTS 1 Significance of Value 1 2 Human Values 2 3 Dignity 3 4 Liberty 4 5 Equality 5 6 Justice 6 7 Ethics and Morals 7 8 Unity in Diversity 8 9 Meaning and Significance of Human Rights Education 8 10 Objectives of Human Rights Education 9 (A) Summary 10 (B) 11 Multiple Choice Questions UNIT II Perspective of Rights and Duties PART......
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Will Duty to Save Environment Ever End? Law as Integrity
...Will Duty to Save Environment Ever End? Law as Integrity Mohammad Mamunur Rashid* Abstract Human rights are not the new concept but due to its serious importance, these have become status of religion in today’s world. People do not respect, sometimes, such rights only because they are protecting themselves. So-called political, commercial or professional interest is first priority of the most people. Land-grabbing illegally, destruction of the trees and greenery environment catastrophically, using pump machine for drawing drinking water from the underground with no hesitation, wastage of natural resources cruelly, enemy behavior with the animals, beasts and other dependant pieces are glaring examples of greedy and selfish tendency of the prudent lives of the universe. These inhuman activities are obliging morally some conscious people to think about its protection. As a result, if any pre-emptive measure for maintaining peace and tranquility is taken all over the world, respecting human rights and humanity is considered as prime concern in such exceptional circumstances. Constitution, national laws and international conventions have accommodated few rights emphatically. ‘Right to life’ is that types of rights. In addition, non-complying with many other rights originated from nature is essential; otherwise, enjoyment of ‘right to life’ would be impossible. Safe environment is one of those significant rights which facilitate us to ensure ‘right to life’. Judiciary,......
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Similarities Between Indian and American Federalism
...and Indian Federalism Being the largest democratic countries in the world, both United States and India are based on federalism in their political structure. US became a Federal Republic State by promulgating its constitution in the year1789; whereas India became a Socialist, Sovereign, Secular, Democratic Republic by formally launching its constitution only in the year 1950.Thereby both countries had attained dominion status in which a number of smaller states had got affiliated forming a union with a strong central government that came to be called as Federal Government in the US and Central Government in India. Thus both states became Federal Republics. While framing the Indian constitution, its drafting committee headed by Dr.Ambedkar, had borrowed many salient features from various constitutions in the world including US but adopted them in the Indian context. Hence, both U.S and India, despite being federal in structure have many similarities and differences between them. Similarities between US and India:- 1) Written constitution:- Both US and India have a written constitution based on which the federal political structure has been set up and both federal governments are functioning.Both constitutions have provisions for amending the constitution to meet the growing socio, political and economic needs and demands of their respective countries. 2) Bill of Rights and Fundamental Rights:- The US constitution has ensured the fundamental rights......
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...IMPORTANT CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL PROVISIONS FOR WOMEN IN INDIA The principle of gender equality is enshrined in the Indian Constitution in its Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles. The Constitution not only grants equality to women, but also empowers the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women. Within the framework of a democratic polity, our laws, development policies, Plans and programmes have aimed at women’s advancement in different spheres. India has also ratified various international conventions and human rights instruments committing to secure equal rights of women. Key among them is the ratification of the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1993. 1. CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS The Constitution of India not only grants equality to women but also empowers the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women for neutralizing the cumulative socio economic, education and political disadvantages faced by them. Fundamental Rights, among others, ensure equality before the law and equal protection of law; prohibits discrimination against any citizen on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth, and guarantee equality of opportunity to all citizens in matters relating to employment. Articles 14, 15, 15(3), 16, 39(a), 39(b), 39(c) and 42 of the Constitution are of specific importance in......
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